Along with the conditions caused by flat feet, arthritic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis may cause flat feet. When this occurs people can experience pain in the foot along with narrowing of the joint space and degenerative bone disease. Flat feet and fallen arches may cause foot pain or ankle pain, but proper attention from a physician or surgeon may address the issue. Over-pronation, combined with wearing hard, flat shoes and walking on hard surfaces such as concrete, pavements, tiled floors etc often leads to ball of foot pain, but also other common complaints including aching legs, knee pain and lower back pain. The most common display of faulty foot biomechanics is ‘over-pronation'. Over-pronation is a condition whereby the arches are lowered and the feet and ankles rolling inwards excessively during walking and running. It is believed by podiatrists that over 70% of the population actually suffers from mild to severe over-pronation. Over-pronation should not be confused with flat feet (Pes Planus). Only 5% of the population is flat-footed, i.e. no arch is present whatsoever under the foot. Over-pronators on the other hand do have an arch present, but the arch will lower significantly during walking and running, and the ankles will twist inwards. AAF is most frequently seen in women, especially those who start out with somewhat flat feet or a pronated (rolls inward) foot. These attributes place extra stress on the soft tissue structures, along with the posterior tibial tendon and the ligaments on the inner side of the foot. Other contributing factors are diabetes , obesity, rheumatoid arthritis , and hypertension. People who play high impact sports may also develop tears in the posterior tibial tendon, eventually leading to AAF. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is more common in women and in people older than 40 years of age. Additional risk factors include obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. So what more can you do? Well, as already mentioned, it’s important to realise that our arches are created and sustained by muscles elsewhere – in the calves and legs, most obviously, but ultimately in the way all the muscles in the body work together. Running is obviously an activity where the feet and legs are under particular stress. But you can minimise the tendency of the feet to over-pronate during running by adopting a running style where the forefoot lands first, something described in more detail in the posts on running, which appear elsewhere on this blog. On the other hand, shoes that are too wide can cause shearing stress under the foot as it slides around, causing callus to build up under the ball of the foot and under the toes. A narrow foot in a wide shoe will slide forwards, causing compression and curling of the toes. By allowing your toes to curl inside a shoe, you disturb the resting positions of your extensor and flexor muscles. Over time, this can result in fatigue and even cramp. This is a very common condition that affects the base of the big toe. It occurs when the big toe gets pushed toward the second toe. Flat feet can cause many problems when it comes to keeping fit. The fallen arches mean that you are more susceptible to health problems caused by exercise. You can tell if your feet are flat by looking at the inside of your foot. If you have a curve which is raised of the ground then you are not flat footed. If you do not, then you need to find the best running shoes for flat feet. Adam Farley is an article and blog writer, loves to write articles and blogs on different topics like; Heel Pain, Athletic Shoes Arch Support Right now Adam is working as a writer at Chiropractors Wichita are trained in extremity manipulations, which include the joints in the ankles, feet, and knees. The reason some people experience pain in the feet is because of fallen arches that subluxate the weight-bearing joints in the ankles and feet. This can lead to conditions like plantar fasciitis and heel spurs. It is hypothesized that these conditions are a result of walking and standing on hard and flat surfaces. We have made an artificial world out of concrete and smooth floors that is incongruent with our genetic design to walk on natural ground. Still, they were like something out of science fiction. In the osteotomy, the doctors used a needle to extract marrow from my hipbone and soaked an inchlong bone graft from a cadaver in the marrow so that it would take to my body better. The graft was wedged in the ankle to change shape of my foot and ease pressure on it when I stand. The doctors then cut off my heel, moved it over a few millimeters and screwed it back to my foot to help create an arch. Gastroc release involved lengthening my calf muscle to correct years of tightness from my unnatural gait.